Kalvarija land may boast of numerous mounds and ancient graves.The Stone Age settlement in Turlojiškės is unique in this area.
The ancient Lithuanian settlement Gulbis (Gulbiniškiai) is of no lesser importance. In fact, it was the Roman historian and traveller Tacitas who first talked about this region and its inhabitants as far back as in the first century. Furthermore, the people known as sūduviai were praised for their diligence. A century later the area was repeatedly mentioned by the Greek geographer and traveller Plotemėjas. They both are supposed to be visiting the country. Historical sources mention this land by the name of Sūduva, Sudina, Sudovia, Zudua.
The area around Suvalkai (Šveicarija vill.), distinguished for ancient graves, is meant to be of major importance. Current archaeological-cultural research notifies sūduviai (jotvingiai) contribution to the development of Lithuanian national culture.
After the wars of the medieval times the land was gradually recovering. The process was dragging on from the end of the 19th c. to the beginning of the 20th c. Many outstanding figures were born there: the witness of the Independence Act of Lithuania, the initiator of Lithuania's diplomacy P.Klimas (Kušliškiai vill.), the writer J.Vilkutaitis-Keturakis (Gulbiniškiai vill.), the initiator of Lithuania's agronomy, the first rector of Agricultural academy J.Kriščiūnas (Gulbiniškiai vill.), the minister of agriculture and state treasures J.P.Aleksa, the art supporter M.Žilinskas (Smalininkai vill.), the colonel A.Malijonis (Radiškės vill.) and others.
The old city of Kalavrija is considered to be the monument of urbanistic value. One can boast of the old Post building (1825), the Catholic Church (1708), the Evangelic Lutheran Church (1796). The year 1920 is signified for the Lithuanian-Polish negotiations on the issues of demarcation.