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The Lithuanian national anthem was composed by Dr. Vincas Kudirka. In fact, it was his poem titled "National Hymn", published in 1898 in the newspaper Varpas edited by Kudirka. At the time (the press ban era) the Lithuanian press published many patriotic poems and songs. As they sang the songs and read and recited the poems, Lithuanians understood more deeply and became mote conscious of love for their nation and a desire to win freedom. Dr. Kudirka did not intend his poem to become the Lithuanian anthem. He did not live to see the Declaration of Independence and did not know that his "National Hymn" had become the foremost and greatest expression of love for one's land - the National Anthem. The "National Hymn" was first performed by a chorus under the direction of composer Ceslovas Sasnauskas at a concert on
November 13, 1899. The concert was held in St. Petersburg, Russia where a large number of Lithuanians lived at the time. Dr. V Kudirka had just recently died. Even then, some intellectuals (i.e. Kazys Grinius, later President of Lithuania) began to call the "National Hymn" the National Anthem. In Vilnius, Lithuanians heard the "National Hymn" for the first time on December 3, 1905. The concert was performed on the eve of the Great Council of Lithuania. Afterward, the song spread throughout Lithuania and was sung on diverse solemn ( occasions. When Lithuania became independent, the "National Hymn" was officially proclaimed the National Anthem (1919). Its title was changed to the first three words of the first verse: Lietuva, tevyne musu ("Lithuania, Our Homeland").
On numerous occasions sing another song by the beloved national poet Maironis: Lietuva brangi, mano tevyne ("Lithuania, My Beloved Homeland"). This song has become like a substitute National Anthem.
Lithuania, my homeland, land of heroes!
Let your Sons draw strength from the past.
Let your children follow only the paths of virtue,
working for the good of their native land and for all mankind.
Let the sun banish all darkness from Lithuania,
with light and truth always guiding our steps.
Let the love of Lithuania burn in our hearts
and for the sake of our country let unity blossom.
The colours of the State Flag (National Flag) are yellow, green, and red. The tricolour stripes are horizontal. Width-to-length ratio – 1:2.
Since 1991, the State Emblem is a white Vytis (a mounted armoured knight with a raised sword) against a red background.
The courts of Lithuania: the Supreme Court of Lithuania, the Court of Appeal of Lithuania, regional and district courts. The Constitution provides for the possibility of establishment of specialised courts for the consideration of administrative, labour, family and other categories of cases. Constitutional supervision is effected by the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania, comprised of 9 justices, appointed for a nine-year non-renewable term of office. The current President of the Constitutional Court is Kęstutis Lapinskas.
The President of the Republic is the head of State. Any person, who is a citizen of the Republic of Lithuania by birth, who has lived in Lithuania for no less than the past three years, who has reached the age of 40 prior to the election day, and who is eligible for election to the Seimas, may be elected President of the Republic. The President of the Republic of Lithuania is elected by the citizens of the Republic of Lithuania on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a term of five years. The same person may be elected President of the Republic of Lithuania for no more than two consecutive terms. One of the major responsibilities of the President is foreign policy. The President of the Republic settles basic foreign policy issues and, together with the Government, implements foreign policy. The President is non-partisan. The incumbent President is Dalia Grybauskaitė, elected on 17 May 2009.
The legislative body of the Republic of Lithuania – the Seimas – has 141 members elected for a four-year term on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage, by secret ballot. The election system is mixed: 71 seats contested in single-member constituencies, and the rest in multi-member constituencies (party lists).
The 2008 Seimas has eight political groups: the Political Group of the Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats, the National Revival Political Group, the Liberals Movement Political Group, the Liberal and Centre Political Group, the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party Group, the Labour Party Group, Order and Justice Party Group and the mixed political group of members of the Seimas.
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Prepaid individual transfer :